In part 1 I mentioned the three types of continuity of care: informational, management and relational continuity. Continuity in primary care results in improved patient health outcomes and satisfaction. Evidence also shows that primary care, in contrast to specialty care, is associated with a more equitable distribution of health.
Receiving care from one general practitioner is beneficial for a variety of health outcomes. For example, relational continuity reduces both elective and emergency admissions. In other words, the rate of hospital admissions drops when people have their own GP.
6 mechanisms that improve our health
Primary care researcher Barbara Starfield identified six mechanisms that, alone and in combination, may account for the beneficial impact of primary care on population health:
- Primary care increases access to health services for relatively deprived population groups
- The quality of clinical care by primary care physicians is at least similar to specialist care for specific common diseases
- The positive impact of primary care on prevention
- The beneficial impact of primary care on the early management of health problems
- The accumulated contribution of primary care characteristics to whole-of-person care
- The role of primary care in reducing unnecessary or inappropriate specialty care.
General practice can deliver long-term, cost-effective continuity of care. A visit to the GP is on average ten times cheaper than a visit to the emergency department. Dr Sebastian Seidel mentioned at a Senate Inquiry last month that GP services in Australia cost taxpayers only $250 per person a year – cheaper than car insurance.
In Australasia, chronic conditions account for about 85% of the total burden of disease, and in 9 out of 10 deaths a chronic disease was a contributing factor.
Unfortunately there is currently inadequate support for the continuity of care required to improve outcomes for patients with complex or multiple chronic conditions and comorbidities.
The Australian government is developing a National Strategic Framework for Chronic Conditions and recently, the Primary Health Care Advisory Group has investigated options into the reform of primary health care to support patients with complex and chronic illnesses. The group’s reform paper is complete and handed to the Federal Health Minister. It will be very interesting to see what happens next.
Although I am more than likely biased, it is obvious to me that primary care has a lot to offer. Continuity of care by general practitioners and their teams has many proven benefits as outlined in part 1 and part 2 of this blog post series.
GPs see about 85% of Australians each year but general practice spending represents less than 8% of the overall government healthcare budget. What we need is better aligned funding that supports primary care practitioners to deliver long-term quality care.
A sustainable health system should free up GP teams and other health practitioners to deliver coordination and integration of care across disciplines, especially for people living with complex and chronic health conditions. Looking at the reform processes that are under way in Australia, we may be getting closer to a better and more sustainable solution.