Why is glucose low and protein high in bacterial meningitis?

So, you want to know Why is glucose low and protein high in bacterial meningitis?

The reason for the reduced glucose levels associated with bacterial meningitis was believed to be the need for glucose as fuel by infiltrating immune cells in response to infection.

Is glucose increased or decreased in bacterial meningitis?

Meningitis can be caused by bacterial, fungal or viral pathogens. One hallmark of bacterial meningitis is reduced glucose levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, which allows a physician to quickly begin appropriate antibiotic treatment.

What causes low glucose in CSF?

Hypoglycorrhachia, a low glucose level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is commonly associated with infections such as bacterial, fungal, and tuberculous meningitis 1. When tests for these infectious causes are negative, the diagnosis can be elusive.

Why does glucose increase in meningitis?

The majority of patients with bacterial meningitis have hyperglycemic blood glucose levels on admission. Hyperglycemia can be explained by a physical stress reaction, the central nervous system insult leading to disturbed blood-glucose regulation mechanisms, and preponderance of diabetics for pneumococcal meningitis.

Why is glucose low and protein high in bacterial meningitis Related Questions

What is the glucose and protein in bacterial meningitis?

CSF Glucose and Protein The CSF glucose level is usually within the reference range in viral meningitis, but it may be low in some cases of LCM, HSV, mumps virus, or poliovirus infection. The CSF protein level (reference range, 20-50 mg/dL) is usually elevated in bacterial meningitis.

What is the relationship between glucose and protein in bacterial or viral meningitis?

The clues that the doctor uses are the levels of white cells, protein and glucose in the CSF. Typically in bacterial meningitis the white cell count is much higher than in viral meningitis (and is a different type of white cell), the protein is much higher and the glucose is much lower than in viral meningitis.

Why is protein elevated in bacterial meningitis?

During bacterial infection, the protein level in the CSF goes up, due to the increased numbers of replicating bacteria and body cells fighting the infection, with both of them having a high concentration of protein.

Does blood glucose increase or decrease with infection?

Illness and infections, as well as other forms of stress, can raise your blood glucose (sugar) levels to dangerously high levels. As part of the body’s defence mechanism for fighting illness and infection, more glucose is released into the blood stream.

How does glucose affect bacteria?

Glucose prevents the use of other carbon sources, a phenomena termed carbon catabolic repression (CCR)2. CCR is believed to be important in natural environments to allow the bacteria to maximize growth rate on its preferred sugar.

What does low glucose and high protein in CSF mean?

High CSF protein concentration may prognosticate for a poor outcome in neonates with bacterial meningitis [4]. High CSF protein and low CSF glucose have been associated with increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss in bacterial meningitis [5, 6].

Why did the CSF show a low level of glucose and a high level of protein?

An abnormal protein level in the CSF suggests a problem in the central nervous system. Increased protein level may be a sign of a tumor, bleeding, nerve inflammation, or injury. A blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can cause the rapid buildup of protein in the lower spinal area.

When is glucose level low in CSF?

Normal levels of glucose in the CSF are greater than 50 mg/dL to 75 mg/dL. If your levels are lower, you may have an infection. Your healthcare provider will look at your CSF glucose level along with the other CSF tests, and possibly other tests, to better understand what your results mean.

What is the sensitivity of CSF glucose in bacterial meningitis?

While neutrophil-predominant pleocytosis and a decreased glucose level in CSF can predict the presence of bacterial meningitis, the CSF/blood glucose ratio is more precise (optimal cut-off=0.36, sensitivity=92.9%, specificity=92.9%, area under the curve=.

What are the CSF findings in bacterial meningitis?

The CSF should be sent for Gram stain, culture, complete cell count (CBC), and glucose and protein levels. Bacterial meningitis typically results in low glucose and high protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

How is CSF glucose concentration related to blood glucose?

Normal Results The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

Why is glucose high in CSF?

Chemical meningitis, inflammatory conditions, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia also cause hypoglycorrhachia (low glucose level in CSF). Elevated levels of glucose in the blood is the only cause of having an elevated CSF glucose level.

Can meningitis cause hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia is common at presentation in patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, even without a prior diagnosis of DM (Schut et al., 2009). Hypoglycorrhachia typically accompanies elevated CSF pressure and protein, and polymorphonuclear pleocytosis, in acute bacterial meningitis.

Is protein high or low in meningitis?

The CSF protein content is almost always elevated in bacterial meningitis (Tables 20-1 and 20-2). Several studies have shown that protein levels are increased at least to some degree in more than 95% of patients, and its absolute value is over 80 mg/dl in more than 80% of patients.

What is the relationship between glucose concentration and cAMP in case of bacteria?

The concentration of glucose in the medium influences the regulation of cAMP levels in Escherichia coli. Growth in minimal medium with micromolar glucose results in 8- to 10-fold higher intracellular cAMP concentrations than observed during growth with excess glucose.

Why does glucose increase with infection?

Infection causes a stress response in the body by increasing the amount of certain hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones work against the action of insulin and, as a result, the body’s production of glucose increases, which results in high blood sugar levels.

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